# Elementary Particles

### Photons

Have you ever wondered what a photon would look like if you could "see" one? I have. This is how I visualize a photon based upon the Ball-of-Light Particle Model.

For this polarization, the blue arrows -- sweeping from pole to pole -- represent the electric field, the magenta arrows -- rotating parallel to the equator of the sphere -- represent the magnetic field, and the green arrows -- pointing toward the center of the sphere from all points on the surface of the sphere -- represent the gravitational field. The diameter of the sphere represents the wavelength of the photon.

### Nordberg Interpretation

The photon is the first or final harmonic depending if you wish to start with the smallest and build to the biggest, or start with the biggest and work towards the smallest. NA
Photons travel in the form of spherical undulating waves -- (i.e., having characteristics of a wave and a particle.) Photons travel in the form of waves. Photons travel in the form of packets of energy.

A photon would "appear" like this if you could see it moving to the right with one "polarization."

A photon would "appear" like this if you could see it moving to the right with the other possible "polarization." Notice the difference between magnetic field's directions -- the vertical magenta arrows. (The green central pointing arrows -- representing gravity -- are not present in these graphics.)
NA
A photon progresses by having 3 fields -- the electric, magnetic, and gravitational -- "pivot" around each other. This wave of energy does not dissipate. It can travel billions of light-years through space -- retaining its compact spherical structure -- because these 3 fields are self-inducing. What keeps these packets of energy "together" is unknown.
Photons are spherically polarized. (When viewed from one pole, then they only appear to be circularly polarized.)
(CCW Polarization)
(CW Polarization)
Photons are circularly polarized.
The wavelength of a photon is equivalent to the diameter of its spherical structure. Photons can have different wavelengths.
Photons have no mass -- however, the have a gravitational field. Photons have no mass.
Photons are bent by gravity because one of their 3 fields is gravity -- photons are the "carriers" of the gravitational force. Photons can be bent by a gravitational field because the electromagnetic fields travel in a straight line but gravity warps space changing what a straight line is.
Photons always travel at the speed of light. Photons can speed up and slow down.
Photons transmit: the electrical field, the magnetic field, and the gravitational field. Photons transmit electromagnetic forces -- not gravity.
Virtual photons do not exist. Virtual photons exist.
A virtual photon is equivalent to the electric and magnetic fields in a photon -- but ignoring the gravitational field in the photon. At short distances, this Grand Unification Theory does not invoke virtual photons but speaks of all 3 of the "components" of the photon -- the electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields. NA
Same Photons can be absorbed or emitted by the electrons of an atom.
Photons combine with electrons by "wrapping" around them. NA
In order for a photon to start wrapping around the electron the photon must be spherically polarized in a "lock and key" like fashion. The electric and magnetic fields on the surface of the photon and electron must attract instead of repel. NA
If the electron and photon have an attractive polarization the photon always wraps around the electron. (Whether or not the photon is completely "absorbed" by the electron depends on the relative wavelengths of the photon and electron.) NA
After the photon starts "wrapping" around the electron, it will be absorbed if it has a wavelength that is a multiple of the electron. If the photon's wavelength is not an exact multiple of the electron's wavelength the resulting particle will not be harmonic. The nonharmonic field essentially induces a new photon and this energy "unwraps" -- it is emitted -- from the electron. NA
The delay created by the photon "wrapping" around and "unwrapping" from the electron gives the appearance that photons can travel slower than the speed of light. A photon interacting with an electron simply travels farther, not slower. NA
Same Photons can be emitted or absorbed by the nucleus of an atom.
The patches of electric and magnetic on the surface of an atomic nuclei are smaller than, and are more numerous than on the surface of an electron. This -- combined with the relatively high strengths of the fields on the nuclei -- makes it more difficult for a photon to impact an atomic nuclei without the photon or nuclei being deflected. NA
Smaller, higher energy photons would have a better chance of hitting a group of these patches in an attractive manner.

As an analogy, picture a volleyball net. The volleyball is like a big photon. When it hits the net, which is like an atomic nuclei, it simply bounces off because the repulsive because the repulsive magnetic-magnetic and electric-electric would bounce off of each other. On the other hand if you threw a small rock, which is like a gamma ray, at the volleyball net, it is unlikely it would meet any of the resistive forces and would pass through the surface of the net.
NA
It is unlikely that an X-ray or Gamma ray will combine with an atomic nuclei in a harmonic fashion. Upon absorption, the impinging electric and magnetic fields will create a nonharmonic patch or patches on the surface of the nuclei. These patches will causes a pinching action on the surface of the particle that will cause a the nuclei to decay. Higher energy X-rays and Gamma rays can shatter an atomic nuclei into smaller particles.
An atomic nuclei that is destroyed will emit harmonic or nonharmonic particles and photons. Same
The harmonic particles -- such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles will likely stay harmonic -- unless they immediately interact with other high-energy photons or particles. NA
The nonharmonic particles will decay further until harmonic particles are created. NA
How quickly the nonharmonic particles will decay is partly affected by the magnitude of motion of the particle -- relative to an expanding sphere of light. Faster moving nonharmonic particles will have their decay retarded by the high induced gravitational fields. NA
Photons come out of a decaying nonharmonic particle because elementary particles are made of photons. NA

### Nordberg Interpretation

The neutrino is the second harmonic. NA
It is a particle composed of two oppositely polarized photons with the same wavelength. NA
The electric and magnetic fields on the surface of a neutrino cancel. NA
The gravitational fields of the two photons combine -- neutrinos have mass. Uncertain
An accelerated neutrino will induce a higher gravitational field. NA
Two photons can combine to create a neutrino if they have the correct wavelength and spherically polarized in opposite directions. NA
A larger elementary particle can decay into smaller elementary particles including neutrinos. Same
Two photons can combine to create a particle like a neutrino that is not harmonic that immediately decays into back-to-back combinations of an electron and anti-electron.

Graphic
NA
Neutrinos do not readily decay because they have perfectly symmetrical and neutralizing patches of electric and magnetic fields -- in a perfect lock-and-key like fashion -- and, the cross product, gravity of the waves combine to add to the strength of the particle. NA
A neutrino can combine with a photon to create an electron. If the photon and neutrino both have high energy, then the resulting electron will have high energy. NA
The rings of Supernova 1987A are examples of high energy electrons created by the collision of expanding spheres of high energy photons and neutrinos colliding. The high energy electrons from SN1987A are slowing down and re-emitting lower energy photons -- thus, they appear to glow. (This is sometimes called Bremsstrahlung radiation, or breaking radiation.) Bremsstrahlung radiation is emitted or absorbed when an electron is slowed or accelerated -- usually by the electric and magnetic fields of a nucleus -- without being captured. This radiation is not quantized and can be emitted or absorbed at any wavelength.
Bremsstrahlung radiation is observed after solar flares because the sun's core is a single elementary particle -- a Ball-of-Light -- that is decaying in such a manner as to occasionally give off larger unstable particles that quickly decay into electrons, neutrinos and photons. NA -- reference page 42 of Cambridge Atlas of Astronomy.
Bremsstrahlung radiation and the radiation given off from the surface of nonharmonic Balls-of-Light is intimately related to what is called "nonthermal radiation." NA

### Nordberg Interpretation

The electron is the third harmonic. NA
It is a particle composed of a photon bouncing back-and-forth -- from pole to pole -- over the surface of a neutrino. NA
The magnetic fields on the surface of the electron spin in opposite directions, effectively canceling each other. (On one hemisphere, the field is spinning clockwise, while on the other hemisphere it is spinning counterclockwise. Many physics students have tried to grapple with this idea. If an electron has a "spin angular momentum" shouldn't spin like a top? No. The whole top spins in one direction. On an electron, the magnetic fields spin in opposite directions.) The electron has magnetic moment. Don't think of the electron as spinning.
However, the electric field on the surface of the electron does not cancel -- effectively giving the electron an electrical charge that is attracted to the surface of a proton. NA

Are electrons composed of 3 waves of photons as the Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts? (See also, Quarks.) Recently experimenters have "discovered" that it is possible to have a charge equal to 1/3rd that of an electron.

PHYSICS NEWS UPDATE
The American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Physics News
Number 335 September 5, 1997
by Phillip F. Schewe and Ben Stein
"What the French researchers found in probing the "granularity" of the quasiparticle carriers in the sample was that their charge equaled e/3, demonstrating that fractional charges could carry the current in a conductor. The French results (L. Saminadayar et al., upcoming article in Physical Review Letters) were obtained by measuring current fluctuations at kHz frequencies, while a competing group (publishing elsewhere) at the Weizmann Institute in Israel, taking a comparable approach, worked in the MHz range. (Journalists can receive the PRL paper from physnews@aip.org.)"

### Protons

Protons are single particles with thousands of patches of neutral, electric, and magnetic fields on the surface of a sphere. The cross product of these fields on these spherical standing waves always point to the centers of the spheres in the form of a gravitational field. Relative to each other, the patches are similar in size with little or no relative motion. However, there is an excess of the magnetic field which attracts the excess of the electric field of an electron. This excess might be a result of having one more patch of magnetic than electric, or the magnetic fields might be slightly larger in a systematic fashion. (See also, Patches of Electric and Magnetic.)

### Nordberg Interpretation

Same The negative charge of an electron is attracted to the positive charge of a proton.
Same Electrons orbit the proton in a wavelike manner.
When an electron is attracted to a proton, it does not spiral all of the way into a proton because when it gets close enough, it is repelled by some of the patches of electrical fields on the surface of the proton. The attraction of the electron should spiral the electron into contact with the proton but they don't! Why?

### Neutrons

Neutrons are single particles with thousands of patches of neutral, electric and magnetic fields on the surface of a sphere. However, unlike the proton, there are equal amounts of electric and magnetic patches giving the neutron an overall its characteristic neutral charge. Another difference between a neutron and a proton is in the size and relative motion of these patches. The neutron has an imbalance -- it is not symmetrical like the proton. This asymmetry causes patches on the surface of sphere to repel each other. As they repel each other, they eventually start to accelerate. As the patches of electric and magnetic accelerate, they induce greater imbalances. This becomes a chain reaction with increasing imbalances until the fields pinch the neutron causing it to decay into other elementary particles and photons.

Graphic of pinching particle