# Introduction

## The Electric field cross the Magnetic field is equal to the Gravitational field

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This web site presents a physics theory -- the first Grand Unification Theory that integrates all known physical forces. It is based upon two key insights in physics: "time" should be defined to be what is now called the "speed of light" and "elementary particles" are "balls of light."

• First, it answers the fundamental physical question, "What is time?". If you have always wondered what time is, then wonder no more. The answer is, time is a constant quantity of motion that is used by people to measure other motions. Through history, the motion people have used -- the motion people have called "time" -- is the apparent motion of the sun as it crosses the sky for an earthbound observer. The sun's motion is what people have been calling time. People measure all other motions using this standard. People compare all variable motions to the sun's standard. The unit of time called the "second" is a motion that is either, exactly, or approximately 1440 times the apparent motion of the sun. The traditional "solar" second is a motion exactly 1440 times as fast the sun's apparent motion. However, the current scientific standard for time, the "atomic" second, is approximately 1440 times as fast as the sun's motion. The biggest problem in physics is: neither the "second" defined using the sun's motion, nor the "second" defined using an atomic clock are appropriate standards of motion -- from a physics point-of-view. The reason is, if a traditional clock is moved, the motion on the clock combines with the motion of the clock. This causes an error in many physics equations. In the past, the only method physicists had to correct for this error was by using the mathematical "trick" that Albert Einstein developed called Relativity. The Grand Unification Theory described here is based upon the insight that time needs to be redefined to be the fastest known motion -- the speed of light. It is a new, alternate "trick" or technique, that solves the same problem Einstein's Relativity solves in another way. (I believe it is a better way of solving the same problem.) The key physical insight -- that goes beyond the mathematical trick of Relativity -- is time needs to be redefined to be what is now called the speed of light. I call this the "Speed-of-Light Definition of Time."

If time is redefined in this manner, then the error caused by using a slower than speed-of-light definition for time does not occur, and thus, Relativity is not needed to correct for the error. This is critical. It is the biggest change to physics since Relativity. Time would not "speed up" or "slow down" relative to the speed of light because time would be defined to travel at the speed of light. As an analogy, in geometry, there are three basic ways to define a parallel line, resulting in three possible forms of geometry: Euclidean, elliptical, and hyperbolic. In physics, there are two ways of defining time: sublight with a correction factor; or the speed-of-light without a correction factor. (By the way, using the Speed-of-Light Definition of Time allows space to be treated in a "Euclidean" fashion. Without a Speed-of-Light Definition of Time, then Relativity must be used, and space must be treated in the more complex "Non-Euclidean" fashion.)

• The second key insight -- an insight that is a direct result of using the Speed-of-Light Definition of Time -- is: elementary particles are spherical balls of light. I call this the Ball-of-Light Particle Model. In essence this grand unification theory states that the gravitational force field is a result of the cross product of the electrical force field and the magnetic force field. In its simplest expression this Grand Unification Theory can be remembered as, E cross B = G. This cross product is easy to remember, however, it is not the exact solution. [Scientists already understand that electrical fields can be induced by changing a magnetic field, and a magnetic field can be induced by changing and electrical field. Going one step further, if both the electric and the magnetic fields are changing, then the cross product of the two fields induces the gravitational field, and the reverse, a changing gravitational field can induce an electromagnetic field.] As is well known in physics, and by almost every literate person in the world, the energy released from an atomic explosion is explained using the famous equation, E = mc2. The reason mass can be converted into energy -- and energy can be converted into mass -- is because, elementary particles are made of light. Specifically, elementary particles are standing waves of electric, magnetic and gravitational fields. When an elementary particle breaks apart, the "parts" are made of light. When matter breaks apart, light comes out of the ball-of-light because, that is what it was made of. (The other two well known physical forces, the Strong and Weak nuclear forces, can be explained in terms of the Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational forces. The Strong and the Weak nuclear forces are not fundamental forces in physics after all. They can be derived from the 3 truly fundamental forces: Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational) One of the biggest implications of the Ball-of-Light Particle Model -- especially for astronomy and astrophysics -- is that there is no limit to the size of an elementary particle, other than the entire energy of the universe. It predicts, for example, that the cores of stars and galaxies are single balls-of-light.

This web site presents the tremendous amount of physical evidence that supports the Ball-of-Light Particle Model. I believe many people will find deep satisfaction from the answers this theory provides. It also provides thousands of potential avenues of research for scientists, and thousands of avenues of research and development opportunities for engineers.