# Example: The Artificial Decay of the Lithium Nucleus

The artificial decay of the Lithium nucleus is a good example of the Ball-of-Light Particle Model at the atomic level. It is common knowledge in the scientific community that an atom is composed of a solid nucleus surrounded by electrons. Studies of the nucleus are traditionally performed by accelerating particles and directing them so that a collision takes place with the nucleus. (A common analogy is the "break" in billiards. The Queue ball collides with the other balls, which are organized in a group, and breaks the group apart.) By investigating how the collisions break apart atomic nuclei it is possible to make inferences about both the accelerated particle and the nucleus.

A natural assumption that researchers made was the actual collision is what causes the nucleus to break apart. Imagine their surprise when they performed experiments on the Lithium nucleus and discovered that the nucleus would decay even without a collision taking place! In 1933 Rausch von Traubenberg and Döpel investigated Lithium with protons and realized the proton could cause the Lithium nucleus to decay when passing the nucleus far outside of the nucleus! How is this possible?

Graphic of collision

Graphic of near collision

Traditional theory treats the proton not as a particle but as a wave. When the proton wave passes the Lithium nucleus there is a small probability that the proton wave penetrates into the interior of the Lithium nucleus and, somehow, causes the nucleus to become unstable and split into two alpha particles.

Graphic of wave passing particle

For me, a favorite part of the traditional theory is critical here. In order to explain how the supposed parts of the atomic nucleus -- i.e., protons and neutrons -- are held together in such a way as to resist the electrostatic repulsion of protons, a strong nuclear force is proposed. Furthermore, this force has a "well-like" or "crater-like" pattern.

Graphic of well

Inside the radius of the atomic nuclei, the particle is very harmonic. It would take quite a bit of energy to break the core into protons and neutrons. This amount of energy needed to break apart the nucleus is represented by the increased height of the rim of the well at the radius of the atomic nuclei. Outside of this radius the well does not drop off immediately. This slope is a graphical depiction of the energy needed by a particle to "penetrate" the nucleus. The part I like best with this theory -- the critical part -- is the motion of particles "within the crater" is described using standing waves!

Another important detail that determines if a particle inside the well can escape is the thickness of the wall of the well at the energy of the particle attempting to escape. It is found that fast moving particles -- e.g., alpha particles in the case of Lithium -- have a much greater probability to escape than slowing moving particles. Conversely, it is the wall thickness that determines if an impinging particle -- e.g., proton waves in this Lithium example -- have a probability of penetrating the wall.

All of this is described in a slightly different manner using the Ball-of-Light Particle Model. The details are:

• the atomic nucleus is a ball-of-light, not a collection of protons and neutrons held together by the "strong" force
• the nucleus is a spherical standing wave
• this wave has many possible harmonics
• different atomic nuclei are different harmonics
• while a proton can exist by itself, and while a neutron can briefly exist by itself, when in a nucleus together, multiple protons and neutrons literally combine into one object
• what are currently called "quarks" are actually the main harmonic waves that are sweeping over neutrons and protons, or their combination in the spheres of other atomic nuclei
• the electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields hold the spherical wave together by being naturally arranged in harmonic patterns according to the general equation, E cross B equals G
• the classic "well" can be visualized in this new model as the superposition of the electromagneticgravitational fields of the constituent waves

graphic

• When aligned concentrically, the waves naturally align in an attractive manner, automatically reducing the repulsive forces to a minimum. To imagine how this works, take two horseshoe magnets and push them together as close as possible with the north poles aligned to each other and the south poles aligned to each other, then let go. The "alike" magnetic fields repulse, quickly pushing the magnets apart, but then the attractive "opposite" fields attract and pull the magnets back together. In a ball-of-light all of this happens but in a far more symmetric fashion: a sphere is far more symmetric to begin with; not only will the opposite magnetic fields attract each other but so will the opposite electric fields; finally, the electromagnetic fields on the surface of the core induce a gravitational field that points to the center of the core. In essence, the traditional "strong" force in classical theory is a combination of the three well-known forces: electric, magnetic, and gravitational.

graphic

• the classic electron cloud patterns that surround different atomic nuclei are caused by the patches of electric and magnetic on the surface of the ball-of-light core

graphic

• when a ball-of-light is accelerated, the electric and magnetic fields on the surface of the core induce new, greater fields, inducing greater mass (This explains both: F = ma, and has been previously referred to as Relativity's mass dilation.)
• when a ball-of-light is accelerated, the increased fields contract the ball-of-light (This is equivalent to the so-called "length contraction" in Relativity -- however, using the Ball-of-Light Particle Model, it is the actual particle that changes shape, not the shape of space that changes. Again, using the Speed-of-Light Definition of Time and the Ball-of-Light Particle Model, Relativity is not needed.)
• when two balls-of-light collide, the distance between them at "impact" is determined by the strength of the repulsing electromagnetic fields on the surface of the particles (The shape of the classic energy well comes from this.)

graphic of fields on a big and small sphere

• after two waves have moved past the maximum repulsive point, becoming superimposed, they naturally try to align, because of electromagnetic repulsion and attraction, and if attraction is stronger, they pull together
• after two waves pull together, they may not be completely harmonic, thus causing the particle to decay: emitting photons or smaller particles
• the classic "tunneling" that can take place is explained by patches of electric and magnetic on the surfaces of the colliding balls-of-light (For example, a fast moving particle will contract in size and -- in general, but not always -- become more stable due to the higher induced fields. It is harder. As the two particles approach each other, in general, repulsive electromagnetic forces on the surfaces of the two cores repel each other. However, if the patches of fields are aligned correctly, attractive forces may be more dominate than the repulsive forces. The small, fast, hard moving particle will be able to approach the larger particle's repulsive patches of electric and magnetic much easier.)

graphic of fields on a big and small sphere

• a particle that "tunnels into" another particle does not actually "go inside" the other particle's nucleus, the fields of the two particles combine

graphic of two spheres melding

• a particle is more likely to combine with another particle if it is "polarized" and "travels straight" into attracting fields (as opposed to a "tumbling particle" that "spirals" in.)
• when two particles combine, the resulting particle is not necessarily harmonic, and a common result is an almost immediate decay
• the key detail on whether a particle will "spontaneously decay" is whether the fields on the surface of the particle are harmonic
• if the fields on a particle are not harmonic, then they can induce greater nonharmonic fields, in effect creating a chain reaction that results in the pinching off of part of the particle
• "solid particles" are spherical standing waves of electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields
• "photons" are spherical moving waves of electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields
• not only can a solid particle collide with another solid particle, so can a photon collide with a solid particle
• when a photon collides with a ball-of-light, if the electric and magnetic fields on the two are aligned properly -- i.e., "polarized" -- then they can be attractive instead of repulsive
• when a photon collides with a ball-of-light in an attractive pattern, then the photons fields combine with the ball-of-light
• if the fields of the particle are simple, like on the surface of an electron, then it is easy for a photon to wrap its fields around the fields of the particle
• if the fields of the particle are complex, like on the surface of a proton, then it is difficult for a photon to wrap its fields around the fields of the particle
• in general, a photon's field will not match the complex fields on the surface of an atomic nucleus, and will simply be repelled by the repulsive combinations of fields (they are deflected or, "bounce" off)
• high energy photons such as X-rays and Gamma-rays are more compact -- i.e., they have a shorter wavelength -- and have a higher probability of impinging the fields on the surfaces of atomic nuclei in an attractive fashion (It easier for them to "tunnel" through gaps in the repulsive fields.)
• a nonharmonic ball-of-light usually simply induces a new photon (For example, if the photon's wavelength is not a multiple of an electron's wavelength, when it collides, a nonharmonic field will be left on the surface of the electron, and this field will simple induce a new photon -- usually at a weaker, or longer wavelength.)
• if a ball-of-light's interaction with another particle or photon leaves the particle nonharmonic, then the non harmonic fields will either: induce new photons; induce new particles (if the fields are massive enough); or pinch off portions of the existing particle
• any way you slice it, a nonharmonic ball-of-light automatically decays into harmonic balls-of-light: into moving waves (photons), or into standing waves (particles)

Back to the Lithium example...

• if a proton passes a Lithium nucleus -- without even colliding with it -- then, the fields on the more stable proton can induce fields on the surface of the Lithium nucleus that destabilize it and cause the particle to decay

Graphic

• the Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that the stability of the harmonics on a ball-of-light are dependent on the speed of the particle

Graph Speed versus Stability

• the Ball-of-Light Particle Model uses the Speed-of-Light definition of time where: all motions are fractions of the speed of light; and all motions are measured with respect to -- "relative" to -- an expanding sphere of light

graphic of distance divided by distance and expanding sphere of light

• the alignment of patches of electric and magnetic on the surface of a ball of light determine the stability of the particle
• the nonharmonic fields on a slow moving particle might be able to rearrange themselves as the particle contracts when it is accelerated
• a particle that is not harmonic at a slow speed may either become: more harmonic at a higher speed due to the higher induced gravitational field and possible realignment of the patches of electric and magnetic fields on the surface of the object; or become less harmonic because the existing nonharmonic fields become closer as the particle contracts, causing the fields to grow, with the resulting chain-reaction destabilizing the particle until it decays
• whether or not a fast moving particle has electromagnetic harmonics that are more or less stable than a similar slow moving particle, the fast moving particle would have a greater stabilizing gravitational field (Thus, statistically, a particle is more likely to have increased stability as its speed increases -- up to a point -- and more likely to become less stable as it slows.)
• symmetrically spaced patches of fields with the same shapes would be more harmonic than nonsymmetrical patches of differing shapes

Graphic

• adding photons to an elementary particle typically speeds up the motion of the particle and always increases its mass
• accelerating a particle in an electric or magnetic field increases the particle's speed
• an accelerated particle induces a new amount of the gravitational field
• when integrated over the surface of the sphere, the higher gravitational field is equivalent to traditional "inertial mass" (This explains the classic questions concerning "gravitational" mass and "inertial" mass equivalence.)
• when a particle that is moving with a constant velocity is decelerated, it has a negative induction and must release some of the energy to remain stable (See Bremsstrahlung Radiation)
• to accelerate a particle that is moving with a constant velocity, it must have energy added to it (This energy appears in the form of induced mass.)
• Because most elementary particles -- big or small -- are naturally stable, changing their speeds, either by accelerating or decelerating, disrupts the harmonics of the electric, magnetic and gravitational fields. Thus, elementary particles appear to resist having their motion changed, and seem to prefer being at rest or moving in a straight line with a constant velocity. (This is the "Why?" to Newton's first law of motion, "Every body persists in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed on it.")