Home The Core of the sun -- a ball-of-light

What does the core of the sun look like? What is it made of? What are its characteristics? What is really going on in the center of the sun? There is probably no way of ever knowing for sure what the center of the sun is like. Probably the only technique scientists will be able to use is to create models for the core of the sun and then test the models to see how close they match the observed characteristics of the sun.
The current model for the sun, is that it is a gravitationally collapsed ball of gas and dust, that has so much internal pressure that it has heated the core particles to a temperature where they fuse hydrogen nuclei into heavier particles using fusion.
The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts something significantly different. Instead of being formed from a gravitationally collapsed gas & dust cloud, the Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts the sun large decaying ball-of-light. The central core is a single object decaying. As the central core decays, electromagnetic waves on the surface of the core induce normal elementary particles that create an envelope of material that surrounds the core. While the envelope of surrounding material does contain hydrogen, and some of the hydrogen does fuse according to normal fusion theory, the majority of the sun's source of energy does not come from fusion -- or fission either. The major source of the sun's energy is the decaying central core.

Spherical Harmonics on the Sun's Core

Spherical harmonics is a branch of mathematics. It is not a branch that most people study however. The complexity and difficulty of this type of math is great. Personally, I do not understand it very well, primarily because I have never had any training in it, nor have I found a good book on the subject. I have, of course, figured out what spherical harmonics is all about -- in general.
What is spherical harmonics? Imagine the waves on the ocean, and how they interact. Imagine the waves on the head of an acoustical drum, and how they interact. How the waves interact has to do with harmonics. Now, instead of imagining water-like waves, or acoustic-like waves over a flat surface, imagine them over a sphere. That is what spherical harmonics is all about.
If it was up to me, an introduction to this math would be standard fare in high schools, and intermediate and advanced classes would be mandatory in any college scientific program. I believe, in 20 years or less, it will be common for people to consider understanding spherical harmonics as one of the most important things in life.
Is it really that big of a deal? Unfortunately, yes! Unfortunate, because of its difficulty. Yes, because if the Ball-of-Light Particle Model is correct, it is the first and only working grand unification theory, and it completely revolves around spherical harmonics.
The general relationship for the Ball-of-Light Particle Model is E cross B = G -- i.e., the gravitational field strength is proportional to the cross product of the Electric field strength and the Magnetic field strength. This level of understanding can be accomplished with simple math. A description slightly more in depth is: the mass of an elementary particle is equal to the integration, over a sphere, of the cross between the electric and magnetic field strength. This level of understanding can be accomplished with calculus. A description a lot more in depth is: the characteristics of photons and every elementary particle can be predicted using, the electromagnetic fields on the surface of an elementary particle, classical electromagnetics, and spherical harmonics.


Helioseismology is the study of the sun's interior using observed waves on the surface of the sun and spherical harmonics.

Photospheric Granulation

On the surface of the sun are patch-like areas. These patches can be modeled as waves of solar plasma. A graphic of one of the patches would look like:

These patches look small based upon their size relative to the sun's total surface area. However, they are quite large compared to everyday human sizes. One patch would be about 1500-2000 kilometers across -- or about half the distance of cheap flights across the United States.
What causes these waves? Current astronomical theory describes these waves as being like the tops of the bubbles in boiling water. The heat from the sun's interior rises to the surface. The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that what causes these photospheric granulations is the waves of electric and magnetic fields on the surface of the core of the sun. As the waves sweep across the core, their electromagnetic fields induce the ionized plasma in the enveloping material to move and undulate. These undulations, or waves, must move completely through the enveloping plasma layer -- there is nothing in their way to stop them. That is why they are visible on the surface of the photosphere.
In essence, almost every particle of material that exists in the envelope of the sun -- excepting particles pulled in by gravity -- is created, that is, induced by the electromagnetic fields on the surface of the core of the sun. Small, intense electromagnetic fields induce particles such as: electrons, protons, neutrons, and other normal atomic nuclei. Larger less intense fields, may not be able to induce individual particles, but they can induce the plasma to move and undulate.

Intro to Sunspots

Most of the electric and magnetic fields on the surface of the sun's core are either:

However, at least a few of the fields -- on the sun's core -- are large, intense, and not evenly spread out.

Let me be clear here. I am talking about the fields on the sun's core -- not the sunspots on the surface of the sun. What is happening in the sunspots is an entirely different situation.

Keep in mind, sunspots have been known to cause interference on Earth: grounding airlines and the cheap flights they offer; TV/Cable reception; and cell phone service just to name a few. In numerous cases, satellites have been damaged or completely disabled. The pulses from sunspots have even caused blackouts by overloading electric grids. You see, the pulses induce powerful current and voltage spikes in the long powerlines.

Again, the electric and magnetic fields on the sun's core are inside the outer plasma envelope of the sun. However, these fields are not immune to outside forces. Outside forces can induce waves in the electric and magnetic fields on the sun's core. For example, the Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts the more intense waves are created by gravitational induction by the orbits of the planets -- especially Jupiter's orbit.

The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that a large object impacting the sun could create a sudden, unexpected Superflare that could suddenly heat the earth. (There are anecdotal stories through history of this happening by the way.)

Later in this year -- 2013 -- we will get to see an exciting comet pass by the sun -- Comet ISON. Some astronomers are predicting it will be the brightest comet ever seen in modern history. It's closest passage to the sun -- perihelion -- will be about November 28, 2013. At that point, the comet will be making a "hairpin turn" around the sun. It will be travelling about 425,000 miles per hour above the sun's surface, and will only be about 732,000 miles from the sun's surface. According to the Ball-of-Light Particle Model -- this will destabilize the sun's core. We should witness some very dramatic fireworks. I predict -- we will see multiple CMEs, and powerful solar flares. I predict astronomers will say things like, "It is only a coincidence these events are happening at this time. The comet is not causing this increased solar activity." I know the astronomers are going to say this -- because it already happened before -- they have had to make up excuses when previous, smaller comets have actually hit the sun. Of course -- at best -- this expected excuse will be wrong -- worse -- a lie -- at worst -- dangerously misleading to the dangers this poses for earth. This comet is going to be so bright, we will be able to see it during the daytime. It will destabilize the fields on the sun's core.

As these waves interact -- on sun's core -- intersecting and merging -- on a periodic basis -- they induce small elementary particles -- and, sometimes -- VERY LARGE elementary particles. At first, the description of these very large "particles" will seem farfetched. You see, they can be 10's, 100's or maybe even thousands of miles in diameter! Yes, individual elementary particles that large! (You have actually seen particles this large if you have seen images of white dwarf stars, or of pulsars.) Just remember, in Einstein's famous equation -- energy equals mass times the speed of light squared -- there is NOTHING in that equation that limits the amount of energy -- or the size of the elementary particle!

How elementary particles are induce off of a star's core is very interesting. Be sure to see the wood plane analogy. I am planning on expanding on this topic quite a bit in the near future. I have also made quite a bit of progress lately in describing this at the atomic level. I plan on make a dedicated movie for Youtube that explains how a photon's fields can combine with an electron's fields, and then how the photon is later induced off of the electron's surface. This process is the same -- whether it is happening on the surface of a star's core, a galaxy's core, or a particle like an electron or a proton. When you think about it -- the process has to be the same. (This note written on 1/31/2013.)

I believe, with the proper model, using the orbits of the planets, and using spherical harmonics and the Ball-of-Light Particle Model, these particles, which create sunspots, will be very predictable. (The only problem will be short-term events like comets plummeting into the sun.)

Resonant Wave Patterns in the Sun

There are many wave patterns on the surface of the sun. Approximately 10 million different resonant patterns have been identified.


Traditional solar theory states that the waves at the surface of the sun are caused by pressure modes which in turn are caused by the churning hot gas just below the sun's surface. They are sometimes called "p-modes" and somewhat inappropriately called sound waves.

The 1.4-8.3 MHz Signals

The strongest resonant signals in the sun's multitude of frequencies are about 1.4 to 8.3 MHz. As a comparison, they are about 100,000 times lower than the notes from a piano.


GONG (Global Oscillation Network Group) is an organization that monitors the sun's oscillations. Using detectors spread over various locations around the world, GONG has been able to monitor the sun's surface activity -- about 90 percent of the time -- for many years.


SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) is a satellite in space that can monitor the sun using a variety of detectors 100 percent of the time. SOHO has provided many important observations and discoveries about the sun.

News of the loss of this satellite is very tragic. The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts the most likely cause of the extinction of the human race is a "Superflare" from the sun. Not only does earth need an immediate replacement for this satellite, we should always have at least 3 similar satellites in orbit around the sun -- and a replacement for launch at any time -- so that the entire surface of the sun can be observed at all times.

(SOHO's Website)

Some waves move around the sun in opposite directions

The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that the electric and magnetic waves that sweep over the core, due so in many directions. However, it predicts some waves will move in opposite directions. This is not something that has been be predicted by earlier models of the sun. Waves moving in opposite directions have been detected by GONG.

Rotation confined to convection zone -- the outer 28.7 % of the sun by radius

This is an extremely important detail! By analyzing how the waves move on the surface of the sun, GONG has confirmed that the waves seen on the surface of the sun move through only the outer 28.7 percent of the sun -- based on the sun's radius -- and that the portion of the sun inside this outer volume "ROTATES MUCH LIKE A RIGID BODY"!

Missing 2/3rds of expected neutrinos

According to standard solar theory, the inner core of the sun fuses hydrogen into helium in a supposedly very well understood manner. In order to confirm their well understood theory, scientists decided to measure how many elementary particles from the sun called neutrinos could be detected. If their theory was correct, there should be a certain number of neutrinos. Were they found? No! When scientists did the tests, and added up the neutrinos -- for experiment after experiment -- scientists measured only one third of the expected particles. A full two thirds of the expected neutrinos were missing! There is no doubt on this fact: current theory on how the solar interior works does not match observation.

"This is a terrible puzzle,"10

Hans Bethe.

"The neutrino experiment is one of the most interesting to be carried out in astronomy in recent years, and seems to be giving the most profound and unexpected results. The least that we can conclude is that until the matter is settled, we must treat all the theoretical predictions about stellar interiors with a bit of caution."11

Jay M. Pasachoff

A new hypothesis for the primary energy production process is needed -- one that does not rely on the conversion of hydrogen using fusion.

The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts nuclear fusion occurs in a much smaller volume than current theory predicts. Instead of fusion occurring in the core of the sun, fusion occurs in just the inner layer of the outer envelope. No fusion is occurring in the core because it is one solid object to begin with.

The radiative zone just below the convective zone rotates much like a rigid body

Again, the sun only ejects about one third of the expected neutrinos and two thirds are missing. Again, the outer 28.7 percent of the sun acts as a boiling plasma, and the inner 71.3 percent of the sun acts as if it rotates like a rigid body. Are these two details related? Yes, according to the Ball-of-Light Particle Model. The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts the inner core is a solid object -- a ball-of-light that is decaying. Thus this core would not eject neutrinos as expected. Instead, only the outer third of the sun -- the envelope area -- combines particles by fusion and ejects neutrinos.

"X-raying" the Sun with Neutrinos

It is not possible to "x-ray" the sun. X-rays would be absorbed by the sun. However, would it be possible to somehow perform a test that would be something like a chest x-ray for humans on the sun? Yes. However, it would be extremely controversial. What could be done would be to place a series of satellites on one side of the sun that would be able to detect neutrinos. Then, on the opposite side of the sun, ignite a thermonuclear explosion, or a series of them, that are designed to give off copious amounts of neutrinos. A couple of satellites could be placed within line-of-site of the explosion(s) to read a baseline for the neutrinos. The satellites on the opposite side of the sun would measure how many neutrinos pass through the sun's various depths.
If traditional nuclear fusion theory is correct, then the drop in neutrinos over the sun's diameter will be gradual. If the Ball-of-Light Particle Model is correct, then the drop in neutrinos over the sun's diameter will be dramatic -- with no neutrinos passing through the core.

Recently, I have thought of an alternative approach for this test that will be less controversial politically, but scientifically, more difficult. The sun is constantly producing its own massive explosions, called "blinkers." Plus, there are millions of smaller explosions in the Corona. Thus, there is no need to launch a satellite or a series of satellites that have massive nuclear warheads. (At this point in history, we couldn't possibly create man-made explosions of this size anyway!) Instead, this experiment could be performed with a larger number of satellites. Satellites on each side of the sun would monitor the number of neutrinos being created from each point on the sun and the timing of visible flashes from all decaying balls-of-light on and around the sun. Some of the neutrinos will be picked up from the opposite side of the sun as they pass through the sun's envelope. Others will be blocked by the core. (If the resolution of this experiment was small enough, it should even be possible to view sunspots as they are induced off the core! Wouldn't that be amazing to see?!) With enough warning, in the distant future, it conceivable that mankind may even create temporary barriers between the sun and earth in the event a Superflare is predicted.

While obviously expensive, I can think of no more important scientific experiment for the human race at this time.

What is the source of the sun's magnetic activity?

It is well known the sun has a powerful magnetic field. What is its source? According to the Ball-of-Light Particle Model, the core of the sun is a single object -- a ball-of-light. This elementary particle has by its very nature powerful electric and magnetic fields on its surface. The sun's magnetic field is simply a reflection of the core's magnetic field.