On June 30, 1908 an explosion took place in a region of central Siberia in the valley of the river Podkamennaya Tunguska. This explosion is usually just called the "Tunguska Explosion." Witnesses saw a massive ball of fire in the sky for a few seconds. Other witnesses were knocked down by the concussion from the explosion as far away as 60 kilometers. Seismic shock waves were detected all over the world. "An unusual night sky brightness persisted for nearly two months after the event due to the presence of a large quantity of cometary dust in the atmosphere." Expeditions to the site of the impact revealed massive devastation.
Trees in an area 30 to 40 kilometers across were knocked down in a pattern that pointed away from the epicenter! Estimates of the size of the explosion suggest it was equivalent to approximately a 12 megaton nuclear explosion.
While the destruction that resulted from -- by whatever it was -- was simply amazing, a key fact was there was no sign of an impact crater. Scientist initially suspected a meteor had crashed into the earth, but with no impact crater they had/have doubts. Over the years there have been many expeditions to the Tunguska site to search for debris from the supposed meteor. Another key fact is, meteor debris has ever been found. The only possible debris that may have been found was microscopic particles found imbedded in tree trunks. The problem with these particles is how to interpret them. Are these particles actual material from a meteor or comet? Or did the intense heat from whatever exploded create these particles using materials found in the atmosphere? In other words, so far, there is no proof that the microscopic materials were part of the object that exploded.
Some scientists have suggested the reason for no impact crater was because the explosion occurred in the atmosphere -- possibly by an icy comet. This makes a lot of sense. If the comet was large enough to begin with, it could have penetrated the atmosphere before heating to a fusion-causing-temperature and being completely consumed by the explosion. However, others have argued that even if this scenario occurred, small fragments of the comet should have survived and been found by now.
The key fact with either the meteor or icy comet theories is: there has been no fragments of any kind that can be attributed to an extraterrestrial object that have been found to date.
There is another possible explanation to the Tunguska explosion. It is possible that this object was a ball-of-light made perhaps by the sun, or less likely by another star, or even less likely -- but possible -- by man!
First of all, the Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that there is no limit to the size of a ball-of-light. Second, the Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that sunspots are caused by massive balls-of-light that are decaying in the envelope of the sun. It is possible that one sunspot could have exploded close to another sunspot and ejected the second ball-of-light into space. If such a ball-of-light was ejected from the sun, and if it was stable enough, it is possible that it could have traveled from the sun to the earth. As it entered the atmosphere, the slowing, and the collision with the atmosphere would have destabilized it. It could have then started to decay in a mode that induced further decay -- sort of a chain-reaction -- eventually causing it to explode.
It is also possible that two solar prominences can create a ball-of-light. If two prominences collide, it is possible that they can create a ball-of-light in a fashion similar to how ball lightning is created here on earth.
It is also possible that such a ball-of-light came from a source outside of our galaxy. The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts that a very unstable star, or an exploding star could eject stable, harmonic, balls-of-light. If such a ball-of-light were moving with high enough speed then, it might be stable enough to travel hundreds of light-years through space to earth. Such objects have been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. For example in the cone nebula "baby stars" can be seen around a "mother" star.
Graphic of baby stars and mother star in the Cone Nebula
Finally, the Tunguska explosion might have been caused by Nikola Tesla. When I first heard of this idea, I laughed. While there are circumstantial facts that would lead some people to agree with this idea, most people would immediately discount it.
The only reason I include this topic is: the physics of the Ball-of-Light Particle Model actually predicts that he might really have been able to cause this massive explosion.
Who was Nikola Tesla? Perhaps the most eccentric scientist in history. Perhaps one of the most gifted true geniuses in history. Almost certainly, he was a man who difficulty confiding in others. He was in one respect reclusive, and in another respect a man who relished being in the lime light. The most important fact about Nikola Tesla was he created many revolutionary inventions that demonstrated that he had an original insight into the physics of electricity beyond any other person in history.
In the early 1900's Nikola Tesla created many interesting and important scientific inventions related to electricity. He invented such devices as: the electric motor, electric generators, the electric arc lamp, electric regulators, alternating current devices, devices for transmitting alternating current, a thermo magnetic motor, an apparatus for producing ozone, devices for converting alternating current to direct current, electric coils, apparatus for producing electrical currents of high frequency, and even a remote controlled boats.
Of key interest here is his inventions for creating massive electrical currents of high frequency and his two towers. These towers were very interesting. He created one at his laboratory in Colorado Springs and another at his Wardenclyffe facility on Long Island in New York. This tower was advertised to have "ten million horsepower" capability!
The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts balls-of-light can be made in a conducting sphere with massive electrical currents at very high frequency!
It is possible that his towers, which were capped by large metallic hemispheres, could have been charged with a huge potential of electrical energy. This is like charging flat metal plate capacitors except the sphere acts as its own capacitor. The difference with Tesla's version of this was, one half of the sphere was the top of his tower, and the other half of sphere was earth itself. I believe he designed his towers -- sort of tuned them -- so that the size of the cap on the towers would be a harmonic of the earth's electrical capacitance.
At his Colorado Springs laboratory Nikola Tesla performed many studies, that to others seemed odd, such as a study of how, when a lightning strike hits the earth, an electrical field propagates around the world. This is exactly the type of experiment that would be required to allow his towers to be tuned to the earth's resonance. Furthermore, these towers had special -- huge -- electrical "grounds" that went deep into the earth. There is only one purpose for the extent of engineering in these grounds: to make sure the towers were tied into the bedrock crust of the earth.
A device for creating massive amounts of electrical current at high frequency, plugged into the ground at one of his towers, could be used to generate an electrical field that swept over earth in a harmonic wave that would rebound exactly back to his tower. In effect he could have "charged" the earth's capacitor.
His electrical pulses could have rebounded -- they would have swept back over the earth -- and traveled up his tower and charged the dome on his tower. (An analogy would be to slowly pump air into a metal cylinder, then release it violently through a small hole.)
If the charge in his tower was great enough, it could have sparked up into the atmosphere, inducing a ball-of-light containing massive amounts of energy. This process probably would have:
The top of his towers were not perfectly smooth. They had small bumps on them.
The bumps on Tesla's Towers
There have been no scientific or engineering reasons given -- as far as I know -- for the existence of these bumps. The Ball-of-Light Particle Model predicts the purpose of these bumps could have been to control the direction that an induced ball-of-light would leave the tower -- giving a crude sort of an aiming capability.
The following quoted material -- marked with ** -- is from: "The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla" by Nikola Tesla with additional material by David Hatcher Childress. Adventures Unlimited, Stelle, Illinois -- ISBN 0-932813-19-4
He had told ministers of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia -- the area in which he was born -- that "he had constructed a number of beam transmission devices including the death ray for protecting a country from invasions and a laser-like machine that could send impulses to the moon and other planets."**
I interpret that what was produced were not laser light, but pulses of balls-of-light.
He had been quoted as saying to a reporter, "But it is not an experiments ... I have built, demonstrated and used it. Only a little time will pass before I can give it to the world."**
I interpret this on face value. He did it.
His critics claimed his death rays could not kill at the distances he claimed because the energy would disperse. He responded by saying, "My apparatus projects particles which may be relatively large or microscopic dimensions, enabling us to convey to a small area at great distance trillions of times more energy than is possible with rays of any kind. Many thousands of horsepower can be thus transmitted by a stream thinner than a hair, so that nothing can resist."**
The key details here are: he was creating balls-of-light; they could have various sizes; and he knew they could contain massive amounts of energy. While his critics were right -- laser energy would disperse rather quickly -- they were wrong to assume that what he created was a laser. On the other hand, balls-of-light -- if harmonic -- do not decay quickly.
His plan to create death rays would require, "several transmitters to rhythmically pump huge amounts of electricity into the earth at pressures on the order of 100 million volts. The earth would become like a huge ball inflated to a great electrical potential, put pulsing to Tesla's beat."**
I interpret this to indicate: the direction of the wave pattern over the earth's crust was not critical. All that mattered was that the energy was stored in the earth's crust, and that a device existed to tap that energy.
"Tesla said his transmitter could produce 100 million volts of pressure with currents up to 1000 amperes which is a power level of 100 billion watts. If it was resonating at a radio frequency of 2 MHz, then the energy released during one period of its oscillation would be 100,000,000,000,000,000 Joules of energy, or roughly the amount of energy released by the explosion of 10 megatons of TNT."**
Of course, I have no way of knowing if these numbers really correlated to the magnitude of capability he had. But I can tell he had more capability than his pears gave him credit. He seemed to relish in the idea that he had this power for he did not explain the physics for it. Instead, he explained to his pears details of light bulbs, and other comparatively insignificant studies. When his ego needed a boost, he could not seem to contain his secrets well though. Some of his comments -- to me at least -- indicate that he wished to scream to the world, "I did it!" I believe he didn't because he discovered these experiments experimentally and never was able to formulate a physical theory for what was happening. He probably wanted to tell all, but his ego prevented him from showing what he discovered because he really couldn't explain it -- he could only demonstrate it.
"1907: When commenting on the destruction of the French ship Iena, Tesla noted in a letter to the New York Times that he has built and tested remotely controlled torpedoes, but that electrical waves would be more destructive." "As to projecting wave energy to any particular region of the globe ... this can be done by my devices," he wrote. Further, he claimed that "the spot at which the desired effect is to be produced can be calculated very closely, assuming the accepted terrestrial measurements to be correct."**
I believe he let this slip out because he had performed a experiment already in Colorado, and because he had done practice calculations on how to project his particles to specific locations.
"1908: Tesla repeated the idea of destruction by electrical waves to the newspaper on April 21st. His letter to the editor stated, "When I spoke of future warfare I meant that it should be conducted by direct application of electrical waves without the use of aerial engines or other implements of destruction." He added: "This is not a dream. Even now wireless power plants could be constructed by which any region of the globe might be rendered uninhabitable without subjecting the population of other parts to serious danger or inconvenience.""**
Again, I believe by this time he had performed such an experiment in Colorado and was biting at the bit to do a big one. He was trying to draw attention, to get others to challenge him to do some big test, and that he was ready to do such a test -- only the press and scientists didn't take the bait.
"1915: Again, in another letter to the editor, Tesla stated: "It is perfectly practical to transmit electrical energy without wires and produce destructive effects at a distance. I have already constructed a wireless transmitter which makes this possible... When unavoidable, the [transmitter] may be used to destroy property and life."**
I believe by this time he knew what he had done in Tunguska, and was trying to justify it, in case the world figured it out. Note the words: "is," "already," and "when unavoidable" in this quote. To himself, he had probably justified his experiment as "unavoidable."
Could he have done this? Yes, the physics was, and is, possible. Did he do this? I do not know. Did he have a motivation to do this? Probably.
Finally, the US government confiscated his records when he died. [According to the biographical documentary video on Nikola Tesla I mentioned.] They have not been declassified as far as I know. Why? Were they, are they, that important? Plus, there have been many reports over the years of unusual experiments that the government has performed under high security.
Has the US military duplicated what Tesla might have done?
Anyone care to make a wager? I am not rich but I probably have a dollar to spare!
Finally, there is a topic that is new to me, but is apparently well-known to others -- Area 52. Area 52 is the most top secret US Government military/research base that is known to exist. Apparently, no one even knows who is in charge of the base -- the Army?, the Air Force?, Government Scientists?, the CIA, some special branch? No one even knows how much money they are funded with. Apparently, their special security forces have the right to kill you, if you stray to close to the base -- without even explaining why.
Many UFO "experts" believe the government:
My impression is the government simply allows and maybe even secretly promotes these ideas to the UFO people in order to hide what they are really doing there. One old, original report from one of the UFO people who spied on Area 52 described what sounds like balls-of-light floating over the area. He thought they were government made, UFO-like copies of alien spacecraft. I think it is possible that this facility has continued the research of Tesla, and is either, still attempting to discover the physics behind balls-of-light, or, is trying to create technology with this -- if this is the case -- "top secret" physics. (See also, UFOs.)